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A collection of commonly-asked questions about sign languages, particularly American Sign Language.
Last Updated: Sep 18, 2017 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates

ASL: Ranking and number of users Print Page

Ranking and number of users

American Sign Language (ASL) is commonly said to be "the fourth most-used language in the United States" (alternatively phrased as "the third most-used non-English language in the U.S."). This claim has been around since the early 1970s. We have seen an assertion that this comes from research done for the Bilingual Courts Act of 1974, which supposedly established that ASL was the fourth most-used language in the U.S. The strongest claim is asserted by Mitchell, Young, Bachleda, and Karchmer of the Gallaudet Research Institute, who in 2004 traced the origin of this claim to a single study done in 1974. This study, known as the National Census of the Deaf Population (NCDP), asserted that the total of sign language users in the U.S. was close to a half-million strong.

However, the 2004 survey revealed several serious flaws in the NCDP, not least of which included the caveat that American Sign Language, specifically, was not pointed out in the course of the study; no distinction was made among the various sign language systems then extant in the deaf population. As such, those numbers probably do not reflect the true number of ASL users in 1974, nor do they offer substantive guidelines for the possible population of ASL users in 2010.

Other data can still be used to draw reasonably plausible conclusions, however; Harlan Lane, Robert Hoffmeister, and Ben Bahan say in A journey into the deaf-world (San Diego, Calif.: DawnSignPress, 1996, p.42):

ASL is the language of a sizeable minority. Estimates range from 500,000 to two million speakers in the U.S. alone; there are also many speakers in Canada. Compared to data from the Census Bureau, which counts other language minorities, ASL is the leading minority language in the U.S. after the "big four": Spanish, Italian, German, and French.


In other words, according to Lane, Hoffmeister and Bahan, ASL is currently the sixth most-used language in the U.S., or the fifth most-used non-Englishlanguage in the U.S.

However, depending on the figures and data chosen, other interpretation yield other rankings. For example, the figures based on the United States Census Bureau’s data from the 2009-2013 American Community Survey for “Languages spoken at home and ability to speak English,” a total of 60,361,574 speak a language other than English at home. American Sign Language is not included in the survey.

Spanish       37,458,624
Chinese 2,896,766
Tagalog 1,613,346
Vietnamese 1,399,936
French 1,307,742
Korean      1,117,343
German 1,063,773
Arabic 924,374
Other Asian Languages 908,314
African Languages 894,499
Russian 879,434
Other Indic languages 800,364
French Creole 739,725
Italian 708,966
Portugese 693,469
Hindi 643,337
Polish 585,153
Japanaese 449,475


*To view the details of which languages other than English is spoken at home, you can download and view the data here.

Using the high figure of 2,000,000 users of ASL, it would place third on this list, behind Spanish and Chinese. On the other hand, using the low figure of 500,000, ASL would fall to 18th place on this list, behind Polish and ahead of Japanese. Intermediate estimates for ASL obviously will produce intermediate ranking results.

To add to the confusion, in its article on American Sign Language this almanac repeats the common assertion that ASL "is the fourth most used language in the United States today." Using the list above, this would imply an ASL-using population greater than 1,643,838 but less than 2,022,143 users (between Chinese and Tagalog). However, there simply is no firm basis for this or any other estimate.

Ross E. Mitchell, Travas A. Young, Bellamie Bachleda, and Michael A. Karchmer of the Gallaudet Research Institute (GRI) wrote an article entitled "How Many People Use ASL in the United States? Why Estimates Need Updating" which was published in Sign Language Studies (Spring 2006, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp. 306-335). The draft of the manuscript is available on the GRI web site


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Prepared by Tom Harrington
Reference and Instruction Librarian
May 2004
Updated: May, 2010
Updated: September 2016

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