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A collection of commonly-asked questions about sign languages, particularly American Sign Language.
Last Updated: Sep 18, 2017 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates

Sign Languages: I-R Print Page

Sign Languages of the World by Name: I-R

I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R


Icelandic Sign Language: Iceland

  • DICTIONARY: Taknmalsordabok (1988). Rejkjavik: Felag Heyrnlausra.

Idioma de Signos Nicaragüense = Nicaraguan Sign Language: Nicaragua

Indian Sign Language: India

  • STUDY: Vasishta, Madan; James Woodward, and Kirk L. Wilson (1978). "Sign languages in India: regional variations within the deaf populations," Indian journal of applied linguistics, v.4 no.2, p.66-74.

Indo-Pakistan Sign Language: India, Pakistan

  • STUDY: Zeshan, Ulrike (2000). Sign language in Indo-Pakistan: a description of a signed language. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Pub.

Indonesian Sign Language: Indonesia

  • DICTIONARY: Pertama, Edisi (1994). Kamus system isyarat bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

International Sign Language: International

  • DICTIONARY: World Federation of the Deaf, Unification of Signs Commission (1975). Gestuno: international sign language of the deaf = langage gestuel international des sourds: the revised and enlarged book of signs agreed and adopted by the Unification of Signs Commission of the World Federation of the Deaf. Carlisle, England: British Deaf Association [for] the World Federation of the Deaf.
  • STUDY: Supalla, Ted (1991). "Grammatical structure of international signs," in Equality and self-reliance = Egalité et confiance en soi: proceedings of the XI World Congress of the World Federation of the Deaf. Tokyo: Japanese Federation of the Deaf, p.762-763.

Inuit Sign Language: Canada

  • REPORT: MacDougall, Jamie (2000). Access to justice for deaf persons in Nunavut: Focus on signed languages. [Ottawa?]: Research and Statistics Division, Department of Justice Canada.

Iranian Sign Language = Persian Sign Language: Iran

Irish Sign Language: Ireland, South Africa

  • DICTIONARY: ISL dictionary [CD-ROM] (1997). Middlesex, England: Microbooks.
  • STUDY: Burns, Sarah E. (1998). "Irish Sign Language: Ireland's second minority language," in Lucas, Ceil, ed., Pinky extension and eye gaze: language use in deaf communities. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, p.233-273.

Irislan = Irish Sign Language: Ireland

Isaret = Turkish Sign Language; also Seraglio Sign Language: Turkey (Ottoman Empire)

Isharon Ki Zaban or Isharon Ki Zubann = Pakistan Sign Language

Israeli Sign Language: Israel

  • DICTIONARY: Savir, Hava, ed. (1992). Sha'ar li-´sefat simanim Yi´sra'elit = Gateway to Israeli Sign Language. Tel Aviv: The Association of the Deaf in Israel.
  • STUDY: Schlesinger, Izchak M., and Lila Namir (1976). "Recent research on Israeli Sign Language," in Report on the 4th International Conference on Deafness, Tel Aviv, March, 18-23, 1973. Silver Spring, Md.: National Association of the Deaf, p. 114.

Italian Sign Language: Italy

  • DICTIONARY: Dizionario bilingue elementare della lingua italiana dei segni (1992). Roma: Kappa.
  • STUDY: Pigliacampo, Renato (1998). Lingua e linguaggio nel sordo : analisi e problemi di una lingua visivo-manuale. Roma: Armando Editore.

Ixarette = Seraglio Sign Language: Turkey (Ottoman Empire)

Ixtapalapa Sign Language = DIALECT of Mexican Sign Language: Mexico

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Jamaican Country Sign Language: Jamaica

  • STUDY: Dolman, David (1986). "Sign languages in Jamaica," Sign language studies, no.52, p.235-242.

Japanese Sign Language: Japan

  • DICTIONARY: Nihon Shuwa Kenkyusho hen (1997). Nihongo Shuwa jiten. Tokyo: Zen Nihon Roa Renmei.
  • STUDY: Takashi, Tanokami, and F.C. Pang (1976). Shuwa o megutte = On the nature of sign language. Hiroshima, Japan: Bunka Hyoron Shuppan.

Jaralde Sign Language = DIALECT of Australian Aborigines Sign Language: Australia

  • STUDY: Berndt, R.M. (1940). "Notes on the sign-language of the Jaralde tribe of the Lower River Murray, South Australia," in Aboriginal sign languages of the Americas and Australia. New York: Plenum Press, v.2, p.397-402.

Jordanian Sign Language: Jordan

  • DICTIONARY: Hamzeh, Manal (1993). Vocabularies of sign language. [Amman, Jordan: Hamzeh.]
  • STUDY: Kabatilo, Ziad Salah (1982). A pilot description of indigenous signs used by deaf persons in Jordan. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University.

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Kaititj/Akitiri Sign Language = DIALECT of Australian Aborigines Sign Language: Australia

Karachi Sign Language = DIALECT of Indo-Pakistan Sign Language: Pakistan

  • DICTIONARY: ABSA Research Group (1987). A dictionary of Pakistan sign language: focus on Karachi. Karachi, Pakistan: ABSA School for the Deaf, 1987.

Kata Kolok = Bali Sign Language: Indonesia

Kenyan Sign Language: Kenya

  • DICTIONARY: Akach, Philemon A.O. (1991). Kenyan Sign Language dictionary. Nairobi: Kenya National Association for the Deaf.
  • STUDY: Akach, P.A.O. (1992). "Sentence formation in Kenyan Sign Language", in The East African Sign Language Seminar, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya, 24th-28th August 1992. [Copenhagen?]: Danish Deaf Association, p.45-51.

Keresan Pueblo Indian Sign Language: United States

Korean Sign Language: South Korea

  • DICTIONARY: P`yojun Suhwa Sajon P`yonch`an Wiwonhoe p`yonjo (1982). P`yojun suhwa sajon = Korean standard sign language dictionary. Seoul: Kumok Haksul Munhwa Chaedan.
  • STUDY: Hong, Sung-Eun (2001). Empirische Erhebung zu Klassifikatoren in koreanischer Gebärdensprache. Diploma Thesis. University of Hamburg.

Kuala Lumpur Sign Language: Malaysia (Peninsular)

Kuwaiti Sign Language: Kuwait

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Langage Gestuelle = Swiss-French Sign Language: Switzerland

Langue des Signes de Suisse Romande = Swiss-French Sign Language

Langue des Signes Française = French Sign Language: France

Langue des Signes Québécois = French Canadian Sign Language: Canada

Laos Sign Language: Laos

Latvian Sign Language: Latvia

Lautbegleitende Gebärden = Sound-Accompanied Signs: Germany

Lautsprachbegleitendes Gebärden = Speech-Accompanied Signs: Switzerland

Lengua de Señas Chilena = Chilean Sign Language: Chile

Lengua de Señas Cubanas = Cuban Sign Language: Cuba

Lengua de Señas Hondureñas = Honduran Sign Language: Honduras

Lengua de Señas Panameñas = Panamanian Sign Language: Panama

Lengua de Señas Venezolana = Venezuelan Sign Language: Venezuela

Lenguaje de Señas Mexicanas = Mexican Sign Language: Mexico

Lenguaje de Señas Uruguayo = Uruguayan Sign Language: Uruguay

Lenguaje de Signos Nicaragüense: Nicaragua

Lenguaje Gestual Español = Spanish Sign Language: Spain

Lenguaje Manual Colombiáno = Colombian Sign Language: Colombia

Lenguaje Mímico Español = Spanish Sign Language: Spain

Lenguaje Mímico Maya = Maya Sign Language: Mexico

Libyan Sign Language: Libya

  • DICTIONARY: Suwed, Abdalla (1984). Lughit alishara alcarabiyya, lughit alsum. Tripoli, Libya: Almunsha Alcama Sinnashir.

Lietuviu gestu kalba = Lithuanian Sign Language: Lithuania

Língua de Sinais Brasileira = Brazilian Sign Language: Brazil

Lingua dei Segni Italiana = Italian Sign Language: Italy

Lingua Gestual Portuguesa = Portuguese Sign Language: Portugal

Lingua Italiana dei Segni = Italian Sign Language: Italy

Linguagem das Mãos = Brazilian Sign Language: Brazil

Linguistics of Visual English (LOVE): United States

  • STUDY: Wampler, Dennis W. (1973). "An introduction to Linguistics of Visual English", in Gustason, Gerilee, and Woodward James C., eds., Recent developments in manual English. Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet College, p.27-37.

Lingwi tas-Sinjali Maltin = Maltese Sign Language: Malta

Lisbon Sign Language = DIALECT of Portuguese Sign Language: Portugal

Lithuanian Sign Language: Lithuania

  • STUDY: Kupcinskas, Dainora (1999). "Issues in standardizing Lithuanian Sign Language," Lituanus, v.45 no.1 p.17+.

Llengua de Signes Catalana = Catalonian Sign Language: Spain

Llengua de Signes en la Comunitat Valenciana = Valencian Sign Language: Spain

Lughat il-Ishaarah il-Urduniah = Jordanian Sign Language: Jordan

Lyon Code of English Sounds: United States (in use at the Western New York Institution for the Deaf [now the Rochester Institution for the Deaf] around 1893; consisted of 45 handshapes to represent all the sounds of spoken English).

  • GUIDE: Lyon, Edmund (1891). "The Lyon phonetic manual," in Fay, Edward Allen (1893), Histories of American schools for the deaf, 1817-1893. Washington, D.C.: The Volta Bureau, 1893, vol. 2, "Western New York Institution for Deaf-Mutes, Rochester, N. Y.: Historical sketch, 1876-1893," p.48-55.

Lyons Sign Language: France

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Macao Sign Language: China (Macao)

  • DICTIONARY: Ao-men shou yü pien hui (1992). Macao, China: The Chung Hsin.

Maganar Bebaye = Hausa Sign Language: Nigeria

Maganar Hannu = Hausa Sign Language: Nigeria

Magyar jelnyelv = Hungarian Sign Language: Hungary

Makaton Vocabulary: Great Britain

  • DICTIONARY: Walker, Margaret (1977). Line drawing illustrations for the revised Makaton vocabulary, 2nd ed. London: Royal Association of the Deaf and Dumb.

Malagasy Sign Language: Madagascar

Malaysian Sign Language: Malaysia (Peninsular)

  • DICTIONARY: Speaking with signs = Sike kuni shuwa ziten, rozin shuwa (1984). 3d ed., vocabulary version. Osaka, Japan: Osaka YMCA. [Quadrilingual sign language dictionary includes some Malaysian signs.]
  • STUDY: Guan, Tan Chin (1987). "Malaysian Sign Language," in Van Cleve, John V., ed., Gallaudet encyclopedia of deaf people and deafness. New York: McGraw-Hill, v.3, p.93-94.

Mali Sign Language: Mali

  • DICTIONARY: Pinsonneault, Dominique (1999). Lexique des signes utilisés par les sourds du Mali. [S.l., s.n.], ISBN 2-911741-30-7.

Maltese Sign Language: Malta

  • DICTIONARY: Basic signs for Malta (1993). Gozo, Malta: Maltese Association for the Deaf.
  • STUDY: Borg, A. (1988). "Formulation of Maltese Sign Language," in Ojala, Raili, ed., Proceedings : one world, one responsibility: X World Congress of the World Federation of the Deaf, Espoo, Finland, 20.-28.7.1987. Helsinki: The Finnish Association of the Deaf.

Manjiljarra Sign Language: DIALECT of Australian Aborigines Sign Language: Australia

  • STUDY: Quek, Joan (Summer 1991). "Occasions for sign use in an Australian Aborigine community". Sign Language Studies, 71, p.143-160.

Manual Mimico Paraguayo = Paraguayan Sign Language: Paraguay

Manually Coded English: Great Britain

Manually Coded Hebrew: Israel

Manually Coded Japanese: Japan

Marseilles Sign Language = DIALECT of French Sign Language: France

Maritime Sign Language: Canada

  • REPORT: Warner, Noni, et al. (1997). "The survival of Maritime Sign Language." Papers from the annual meetings of the Atlantic Provinces Linguistics Association, volume 21, 1997, p.170-176.

Martha's Vineyard Sign Language (defunct): United States

  • STUDY: Groce, Nora Ellen (1985). Everyone here spoke sign language: hereditary deafness on Martha's Vineyard. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Masvingo Sign Language = DIALECT of Zimbabwe Sign Language: Zimbabwe

Mayan Sign Language: Mexico

  • STUDY: Shuman, Malcolm J. (1980). "The sound of silence in Nohya: a preliminary account of sign language use by the deaf in a Maya community in Yucatan, Mexico," Language sciences, v.2 no.1, p.144-173.

Mbour Sign Language: Senegal

Mexican Sign Language: Mexico

  • DICTIONARY: Serafín García, Esther (1990). Comunicación manual. México, D.F.: SEP.
  • STUDY: Eatough, Andy (1992). Mexican sign language grammar. Student paper, Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University.

Middle Type Signs = Pidgin Sign Japanese: Japan

Migany Jezyk Polski = Polish Finger Language: Poland

Milan Sign Language = DIALECT of Italian Sign Language: Italy

Mimico Español = Spanish Sign Language: Spain

Monastery of Zion Sign Language (defunct): United Kingdom

  • DICTIONARY: Betson, Thomas (ca. 1450). Anngiers history of the Zion Monastery at Lisbon and Brentford, p.405-409. Republished in British deaf times (1934), vol. XXXI, March/April and May/June; and in Lee, Raymond (2004), A beginner's guide to deaf history, Feltham, Middlesex: British Deaf History Society Publications, p.211-214.

Monastic Sign Languages, see:

  • Anglo-Saxon Monastic Sign Language
  • Augustinian Sign Language
  • Benedictine Sign Language
  • Cistercian Sign Language
  • Monastery of Zion Sign Language
  • Trappist Sign Language

Mongolian Sign Language: Mongolia

  • DICTIONARY: Mongolyn dokhiony khelnii tol' = Mongolian sign language dictionary (1995). [S.l. : s.n.].

Montevideo Sign Language = DIALECT of Uruguayan Sign Language: Uruguay

Moroccan Sign Language: Morocco

  • DICTIONARY: Wismann, Lynn, and Margaret Walsh (1987). Signs of Morocco. Rabat, Morocco: Peace Corps Morocco.

Morphemic Sign System: United States

Motorcycle Sign Language: United States

  • DICTIONARY: Kamp, Blane (1990). Motorcycle sign language. Huntington, W. Va.: University Editions.

Mouth-Hand System: Denmark

Mozambican Sign Language: Mozambique

Mudbura Sign Language = DIALECT of Australian Aborigine Sign Language: Australia

Mumbai Sign Language = Bombay Sign Language: India

Murngin Sign Language: DIALECT of Australian Aborigine Sign Language: Australia

  • DICTIONARY: Warner, W. Lloyd (1978). "Murngin Sign Language," in Aboriginal sign languages of the Americas and Australia. New York: Plenum Press, v.2, p.389-392.

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Naga Sign Language: India

  • REPORT: Hutton, John Henry (1921). The Angami Nagas, with some notes on neighbouring tribes. London: MacMillan, p.291-292.

Namibian Sign Language: Namibia

  • DICTIONARY: Ashipala, Sackeus P., et al. (1989). Namibian sign language dictionary. [S.n., s.l.]

Naples Gesture Language: Italy

  • REPORT AND DICTIONARY: Jorio, Andrea de (1832, translated edition 2000). Gesture in Naples and gesture in classical antiquity. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. English translation of original 1832 Italian edition, La mimica degli antichi investigata nel gestire napoletano.

Naples/Palermo Sign Language = DIALECT of Italian Sign Language: Italy

Native Americans Sign Language = Plains Indians Sign Language: United States

Natürliche Gebärde = Swiss-German Sign Language: Switzerland

Nepalese Sign Language: Nepal

  • DICTIONARY: Nepali sign language dictionary (1995). Kathmandu: Nepal National Federation of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing.
  • STUDY: Woodward, James (1993). "The relationship of sign language varieties in India, Pakistan and Nepal," Sign language studies, no.78, p.15-22.

Neuchatel Sign Language = DIALECT of Swiss-French Sign Language: Switzerland

New Zealand Sign Language: New Zealand

  • DICTIONARY: A dictionary of New Zealand sign (1998). Auckland: Auckland University Press: Bridget Williams Books.
  • STUDY: Collins-Ahlgren, Marianne (1989). Aspects of New Zealand sign. Ph.D. dissertation. Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington.

Ngada Sign Language: DIALECT of Australian Aborigine Sign Language: Australia

  • STUDY: Mountford, C.P. (1978). "Gesture language of the Ngada tribe of the Warburton Ranges, Western Australia", in Aboriginal sign languages of the Americas and Australia. New York: Plenum Press, v.2, p.393-396.

Nicaraguan Sign Language: Nicaragua

  • DICTIONARY: López Gómez, Juan Javier (1997). Diccionario del idioma de señas de Nicaragua. Managua: Asociación Nacional de Sordos de Nicaragua.
  • STUDY: Senghas, Richard Joseph (1997). An "unspeakable, unwriteable" language: deaf identity, language & personhood among the first cohorts of Nicaraguan signers. Ph.D. dissertation. Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester.

Nigerian Sign Language: Nigeria

Nihon Syuwa = Japanese Sign Language: Japan

Nohya Sign Language = Mayan Sign Language: Mexico

Norsk Tegnspråk = Norwegian Sign Language: Norway

North American Indians Sign Language = Plains Indians Sign Language: United States

North Belgian Sign Language = DIALECT of Belgian Sign Language: Belgium

North West Frontier Province Sign Language = DIALECT of Indo-Pakistan Sign Language: India

Norwegian Sign Language: Norway, Madagascar

  • DICTIONARY: Norsk tegn ordbok: 4,592 ord/tegnbilder (1988). Bergen: Døves Forlag.
  • STUDY: Martinsen, Harald; Halvor Nordeng; and Stephen von Tetscher (1990). Tegnspråk: Sosial betydning utvikling og pedagogisk bruk. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

Nova Scotian Sign Language: Canada

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Old French Sign Language (defunct): France

Old Irish Sign Language: Ireland

  • STUDY: LeMaste, Barbara Celeste (1990). The maintenance and loss of female and male signs in the Dublin deaf community. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California at Los Angeles.

Old Kentish Sign Language (defunct): Great Britain

Oporto Sign Language = DIALECT of Portuguese Sign Language: Portugal

Original Bangkok Sign Language (defunct): Thailand

Original Chiangmai Sign Language (defunct): Thailand

Oslo School Sign Language = DIALECT of Norwegian Sign Language: Norway

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Padua Sign Language = DIALECT of Italian Sign Language: Italy

Paget-Gorman Sign System: Great Britain

  • DICTIONARY: Paget, Richard Arthur Surtees (1971). The Paget Gorman Sign System. [S.l.: s.n.].
  • STUDY: Gorman, Pierre, and Grace Paget (1964). A systematic sign language. London: [s.n.].

Pakistan Sign Language: Pakistan

  • DICTIONARY: ABSA Research Group (1987). A dictionary of Pakistan sign language: focus on Karachi. Karachi, Pakistan: ABSA school for the Deaf, 1987.
  • STUDY: Zeshan, Ulrike (1996) "Aspects of Pakistan Sign Language." Sign language studies, no.92, p.253-296.

Paleneo: International

  • STUDY: Charteris, Leslie (1972). Paleneo: a universal sign language. London: Hodder & Stoughton.

Palestinian Sign Language: Palestine

  • STUDY: Strauss-Sameneh, Nicole (2001). "Namensgebärden in der Palästinensischen Gebärdensprache." Das Zeichen v.15 no.56 p.288-297, v.15 no.57 p.442-447, v.15 no.58 p.594-601.

Panamanian Sign Language: Panama

  • DICTIONARY: Lengua de señas panameñas (1990). Panama: Asociación Nacional de Sordos de Panamá.

Paraguayan Sign Language: Paraguay

  • DICTIONARY: Lichtenberger, Wilfried (1989). Manual Mimico Paraguayo, edition revisado. Asunción, Paraguay: Instituciones de Educación Especial del país por el Ministerio de Educación y Culto.

Penang Sign Language: Malaysia (Peninsular)

Persian Sign Language: Iran

  • DICTIONARY: Persian Sign Language collection for the deaf (1989). Tehran?: Islamic Republic of Iran Welfare Organization, Education and Research Office, Rehabilitation Research Group.
  • STUDY: Sparhawk, Carol M. (1978) "Contrastive-identificational features of Persian gesture." Semiotica v.24 no.1-2, p.49-86.

Peruvian Sign Language: Peru

Philippine Sign Language: Philippines

  • DICTIONARY: MacFadden, Jane (1977). Sign as you speak. Cubao, Quezon City, Philippines: Southeast Asian Institute for the Deaf.
  • STUDY: Martinez, Liza B. (1993). "Eye-gaze as an element in Filipino Sign Language discourse," in Winston, Elisabeth A., ed., Communication forum, volume 2. Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University, School of Communication, p.99-112.

Phonemic Manual System: Germany

Pidgin Sign English: United States

  • STUDY: Woodward, James C. (1973). Some characteristics of Pidgin Sign English. [S.l.: s.n.]

Pidgin Sign French: Canada

Pidgin Sign Japanese: Japan

Plains Indian Sign Language: United States.

  • DICTIONARY: Cody, Iron Eyes (1970). Indian talk; hand signals of the American Indians. Healdsburg, Calif., Naturegraph Publishers.
  • STUDY: Clark, William Philo (1885). The Indian sign language. Philadelphia: L.R. Hamersly (1982 reprint, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press).

Polish Finger Language: Poland (Migany Jezyk Polski)

Polish Sign Language: Poland (Polski Jezyk Migowy)

  • DICTIONARY: Hendzel, Jozef (1986). Slowenik polskiego jezyka miganego. Olsztyn: [s.n.]

Polski Jezyk Migowy = Polish Sign Language: Poland

Portuguese Sign Language: Portugal (Língua Gestual Portuguesa)

  • DICTIONARY: Martins, Maria Raquel Delgado et al. (1997). Dicionário da língua gestual Portuguesa [CD-ROM]. Lisboa: Instituto de Inovacão Educational, Edicão do Laboratorio de Fonética da Faculdalde de Letras da Letras de Universidale de Lisboa.
  • STUDY: Prata, Maria Isabel (1980). Mãos que falam. Lisboa: Edição da Divisão do Ensino Especial, Direcção-Geral do Ensino Básico.

Providence Island Sign Language = Providencia Sign Language: Colombia

Providencia Sign Language: Colombia

  • STUDY: Washabaugh, William (1986). "The acquisition of communicative skills by the deaf of Providence Island," Semiotica, v. 62, no. 1/2, p. 179-190.

Puerto Rican Sign Language: Puerto Rico, United States

  • STUDY: Frishberg, Nancy (1987). "Puerto Rican Sign Language," in van Cleve, John V., ed., Gallaudet encyclopedia of deaf people and deafness. New York: McGraw-Hill, v.3, p.104-105.

Punjab/Sindh Sign Language = DIALECT of Indo-Pakistan Sign Language: India

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Québéc Sign Language = French Canadian Sign Language: Canada

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Rennellese Sign Language: Solomon Islands

  • DICTIONARY AND STUDY: Kuschel, Rolf (1974). A lexicon of signs from a Polynesian outliner island: a description of 217 signs as developed and used by Kagobai, the only deaf-mute of Rennell Island. København: Universitet, Psykologisk Laboratorium.

Rochester Method: United States

  • STUDY: Scouten, Edward L. (1942). A revaluation of the Rochester Method. Rochester, N.Y.: Alumni Association, Rochester School for the Deaf.

Romanian Sign Language: Romania

Rome Sign Language = DIALECT of Italian Sign Language: Italy

  • STUDY: Boyes Braem, P., et al. (1990). "A comparison of techniques for expressing semantic roles and locative relations in two different sign languages." SLR '87: Papers from the Fourth International Symposium on Sign Language Research. Hamburg: Signum-Press, p.114-120.

Russian Sign Language: Russia, Bulgaria

  • DICTIONARY: Geil´man, Iosif Florianovich (1975-79). Spetsificheskie sredstva obshcheniia glukhikh: daktilologiia i mimika. Leningrad: Leningradskii vosstanovitel´nyi tsentr vog.
  • STUDY: Grenoble, Lenore (1992). "An overview of Russian Sign Language." Sign language studies, no. 77, p.321-338.

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